element of the social and political environment of the region. The word 'Acholi' is a misnomer that became adopted for convenience over the years. This paper is a case study analysis of the sociological phenomena of forgiveness occurring in an ongoing two-decade war in northern Uganda. subcounty level; and larger zones of the most intensive (and peaceful) be possessed by a spirit named Lakwena, the so-called Holy Spirit Movement fought a rebellion (1972). Women also provide major labor in the fields, as well as being responsible for most child rearing and all cooking and other food-preparation tasks. It does not correspond to any user ID in the web application and does not store any personally identifiable information. This cookie is set by doubleclick.net. These cookies track visitors across websites and collect information to provide customised ads. Its current population is estimated to be around 2.155,000 individuals, or six percent of the total national population. In contrast, the Acholi and other northern ethnic groups supplied much of the national manual labour and came to comprise a majority of the military, creating what some have called a "military ethnocracy". The Luo, (also spelled Lwo) are several ethnically and linguistically related Nilo-Semitic ethnic groups that inhabit an area ranging from Egypt and Sudan to South Sudan and Ethiopia, through Northern Uganda and eastern Congo (DRC), into western Kenya, and the Mara Region of Tanzania. Traditionally, a grave is dug as soon as a person has died, following which a small and brief ceremony is held in the deceased's house prior to burial. This complex process was helped along by two major droughts, probably during the 1720s and c. 1790, which promoted larger-scale political leadership that held the promise of greater stability and security, and by the formation of neighboring identities against which members of an emergent Acholi could compete, compare, and define themselves. The state is a form of human association distinguished from other social groups by its purpose, the establishment of order and security; its methods, the laws and their enforcement; its territory, the area of jurisdiction or geographic boundaries; and finally by its sovereignty . reported that the Acholi chiefs generally accepted the position of Baker, as he had helped them before. Advertisement cookies are used to provide visitors with relevant ads and marketing campaigns. This has continued in various guises ever since. That is why the Lango neighbours refer to the Acholi as Ugangi, meaning people of the home. Over the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, some seventy chiefdoms were founded throughout the area that became Acholi, leading to the development of a new social order and political culture, the spread of a new language (Luo), and the evolution of a new society and collective identity. Peace negotiations to end the long-running rebellion by the Lords Resistance Army continued, while security in the north improved through 2007. Childlessness is one of the most serious misfortunes imaginable; women are typically blamed, and the marriage often ends or the husband takes a second wife. 102-104, Southern Sudan and the Government of the Republic of the South Sudan, State Minister for Foreign Affairs (International Affairs), https://www.peoplegroups.org/explore/GroupDetails.aspx?peid=15068#topmenu, "2014 Uganda Population and Housing Census Main Report", https://www.peoplegroups.org/explore/GroupDetails.aspx?peid=14887#topmenu, James Ojent Latigo, Chapter 4: "Northern Uganda tradition-based practices in the Acholi region, 1. Administrative divisions within Acholi, however, both during colonial rule and since independence, have often reflected preexisting sociopolitical units: lineages at the parish level; chiefdoms at the subcounty level; and larger zones of the most intensive (and peaceful) interpolity interactions at the county level. Deep-rooted divisions and polarization remain between different ethnic groups, and these have been greatly exacerbated by the way in which the countrys leadership has developed since independence. population. Women daubed the walls with mud, decorating them with geometrical or conventional designs in red, white or grey. The movement hopes to strengthen the political and economic power of women in society and so push back destruction of the natural environment. Girling (1960) notes that as late as 1950 there was still no system of individual land tenure in Acholi; however, such tenure has become increasingly common since independence. Milton Obote (196271, 198085). 1.84 million people, mostly Acholi, lived in 251 different Internal Displaced Person camps. Orientation Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree. "[9], Milton Obote, the first leader after independence, relied on Acholi Luo people and Langi Nilo Hamites or Ateker peoples in government. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Despite their common language and ethnic designation, the Acholi of Uganda and the southern Sudan have distinct origins and developed along different historical trajectories; the remainder of this cultural summary will focus on the more populous Uganda Acholi. He was defeated in January 1986. Encyclopedia of World Cultures. colonial rule in their region for decades, before finally being integrated in the Ugandan territory For example, among Acholi, husbands pay a bride price to their wives fathers, and this payment supports the traditional belief that women are the property of the husband, since a payment was made for her. The cookie is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Other. Comprising less than 5 percent of the country's population, during the early years of independence the Acholi constituted more than 15 percent of the police force and fully a third of the army. with the British and those who managed to obtain Western education. Hansen, Holger B., and Michael Twaddle, eds. settle disputes that involved more than one lineage. Marriage has been typically patrilocal and patriarchal, with the husband and father as the undisputed head of the household. limited wealth in the society and redistribution. As they have for centuries, Acholi farmers rely mainly on iron hoes and other hand tools. Acholi live in Northern Uganda, in the districts Kitgum, Pader and Gulu. Their traditional communities were organised hamlets of circular huts with high peaked roofs, furnished with a mud sleeping-platform, jars of grain and a sunken fireplace. collective identity evolved, and a common language (Luo) spread. (Atkinson, 2011 Extensive mission activity in Acholi by both Protestants and Catholics has attracted many followers since the second decade of the twentieth century. Malaria and AIDS have been the primary disease causes of deaths. The building of houses and granaries has historically involved both men and women, with each performing specified functions. In terms of the afterlife, although spirits of the dead are believed to continue to exist and manifest themselves, there is no belief in a heaven to reward the virtuous or a hell to punish the sinful. Due to its central location and the close The cookie is set by the GDPR Cookie Consent plugin and is used to store whether or not user has consented to the use of cookies. occur, however, it was usually limited in scope, with relatively few Political organizations are those engaged in political activities (e.g., lobbying, community organizing, campaign advertising, etc.) to the land by Kuturia caused a lot of death in the sub-region of Acholi. (p. 34). In addition there were priest- or priestess-diviners, private practitioners who worked for the well-being of their clients, and witches, who worked in private for evil or destructive purposes. Divorce, which can occur for numerous reasons, is not uncommon and may or may not involve return of the bride-wealth; children, as members of the father's lineage, usually either stay with the father or return to him later. others who benefited from the new dispensation, including collaborators Verona: Editrice Nigrizia. somewhat better off than others before the latter part of the nineteenth While Acholi also lives north of the South Sudaneseborder, the Sudanese Acholi are often excluded from the political meaning of the term "Acholiland". This belief underlies the customary land tenure rule that prohibits women from having rights to land independent of their relationship with their father or husband. Our editors will review what youve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Political Organization. Even in this . Shilluk Acholi From early on, girls and boys learn gender-appropriate behaviors and activities, and these are reflected in both their play and their chores and other responsibilities. neighboring peoples, was neither rare nor endemic. ETHNONYMS: Mende (Men-day), Mendes, Huro, Wuro environment and larger distances between settlements kept the hierarchical structures Nairobi: Oxford University Press. The relationship between the Acholi and the British had for a long time been rather loose and In . More commonly, almost any salaried job in the public or private sector represents an income that averages several times that of a member of the majority peasant population. Milton Obote (1962-71, 1980-85). As a result, many widowed Acholi have been unable to access their land on return to their homes. Acholi chiefdoms ranged in population from under 1,000 to as many as 20,000 people and consisted of a number of fenced villages, each with recognized land rights vested in the patrilineal lineage (kaka ) at its core. Relatively small numbers of Acholi have filled middle-level or senior civil-service positions in independent Uganda. The Acholi or Acoli are part of Luo-speaking Nilotic people of East Africa who lives predominantly in Northern Uganda (an area commonly referred to as Acholiland), including the districts of Agago, Amuru, Gulu, Kitgum, Nwoya, Lamwo, and Pader; and Magwe County in South Sudan. Men have also traditionally played a significant role in agriculture, especially for such time-limited, labor-intensive tasks as clearing, planting, and harvesting (often as part of lineage-based cooperative labor teams). An individual had personal claim to land that he and his wife (or wives) had under cultivation or that had been cultivated but was lying fallow, and such rights passed from father to son. Many of the Acholi soldiers who joined the Kings African Rifles (KAR), the British colonial army, were deployed to the frontlines in southeast Asia especially in Singapore and Burma during the World War II where they held British positions against an intense Japanese offensive.

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